Translate Keyboard Layout

Currently the supported keyboard layouts are:

All standard keys are defined in usb_hid_keys.h.
To translate a keyboard layout, you have to match each character on your keyboard to the one(s) of a US keyboard.
This stuff is hard to explain in writing and requires a lot of manual work and testing.

  1. Copy one of the existing layouts files, like locale_us.h.
    Preferably one that is close to your keyboard layout, it will save you time!
  2. Add #include "locale_xx.h" to the end of the locales.h file.
  3. Rename the file and its variables to your language code. For example:
    locale_xx.h -> locale_de.h,
    ascii_xx -> ascii_de,
    locale_xx -> locale_de,
    extended_ascii_xx -> extended_ascii_de,
    utf8_xx -> utf8_de.
  4. Modify the ASCII array.
    The ASCII array has a fixed size. Each row describes a key. First a modifier key like KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, then a character key. Some ASCII characters can’t be typed or don’t require a modifier, that’s where you must place KEY_NONE. Check usb_hid_keys.h for the available keys.
    If multiple modifiers are required, you must use a bitwise OR to connect them: KEY_MOD_RALT | KEY_MOD_LSHIFT.
    For example, in locale_de.h Z is saved as KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, KEY_Y.
    This is because German keyboards use QWERTZ instead of the QWERTY layout and since the letter is uppercase, shift must be pressed as well.
    Thankfully you don’t have to trial and error everything, the Hak5 Community translated a lot of layouts already here. It’s just written in a different syntax. For example, ASCII_20 (20 in hexadecimal) is the 32th character in our ascii array.
  5. Modify or create the extended ASCII array.
    The extended ASCII array doesn’t have a fixed size and is only as long as you make it. First the character code. For example, ä has the index 132, or 84 in hex. It doesn’t use a modifier and sits where the apostrophe key is on a US keyboard: 0x84, KEY_NONE, KEY_APOSTROPHE, // ä.
  6. Modify or create the UTF-8 array.
    The UTF-8 array is variable in length, too.
    The first 4 bytes are the character code.
    For example, Ä has the hex code c384 or 0xc3 0x84. The other 2 bytes are not used so we set them to 0. Because the letter is uppercase, we need to press the shift key and like before, the letter is typed by pressing the same key as the apostrophe key of a US keyboard: 0xc3, 0x84, 0x00, 0x00, KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, KEY_APOSTROPHE, // Ä.
  7. Edit the hid_locale_t structure.
    If you renamed all variables accordingly, there’s nothing left to do.
  8. Go to duckparser.cpp at // LOCALE (-> change keyboard layout) you can see a bunch of else if statements. You need to copy one for your layout.

Before adding GB layout:

if (compare(w->str, w->len, "US", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "DE", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {

After adding GB layout:

if (compare(w->str, w->len, "US", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "DE", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "GB", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
  1. Test your layout with a Ducky Script that contains all characters of your keyboard. For example:
STRING !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>[email protected][\]^_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~²³äöüÄÖÜ߀°§`
  1. Add a link to your layout to README, to web/index.html and please feel free to improve this tutorial to help future translators!
  2. Create a Pull Request